Rational thought
These articles will tell you all there is to know about philosophy. Everything else you hear on the subject is not even wrong, and reading these articles should illuminate why. Nothing in the series is non-trivial, one can arrive at these conclusions just by thinking a bit for themselves.
  1. Three domains of knowledge
  2. More on physics (Solmonoff's theory of inductive inference)
  3. More on ethics
    1. Making prescriptions with utilitarianism
    2. A critique of Kant
    3. A critique of the non-aggression principle
    4. A critique of positive rights
    5. A critique of Rawls
    6. A critique of Rand
    7. A critique of anarchy
    8. A defense of utilitarianism
    9. Examples of rational arguments
  4. What is logic?
    1. Structure of an argument -- rational, positive, normative and negative statements, definitions
    2. Logical fallacy 
    3. What is an opinion?
    4. What is emotion?
    5. What is rhetoric?
    6. Make your precise prediction -- proportional to $x$, $\dot x$ or $\ddot x$?
Positive and normative economics
The purpose of discussing economics in this course is two-fold: one, it is the general theory of how a resource is managed, and often one may draw parallels to the workings of science with knowledge as this resource; and two, and this applies more to the normative aspect of the chapter, it allows us to generate an example of an ethical argument.
  1. Understanding economics through auctions
  2. Understanding economics through Smith diagrams
  3. Externalities and market discreteness 
  4. GDP, Say's law and Keynesian economics
  5. Redistribution
A brief discussion on the history of science

(Name reference: "Didymeus" (Διδυμεύς) is an epithet of Apollo, the Greek god of knowledge and the sun, among a bunch of other random stupid things, it's supposed to be a reference to how sunlight gets sent to the Earth in two ways -- straight, and reflected off his little sister. So the joke is that mathematics sends stuff to us in three ways -- directly, via physics and via ethics. So, Tridymeus (Τριδυμεύς).)

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